DEFLOWERED

Tine Poppe

2018 - Ongoing

D E F L O W E R E D ( c o l l a g e )

An estimated 200 million girls and women alive today are believed to have been subjected to FGM - female genital mutilation. If the practice continues at recent levels, 68 million girls will be cut by 2030. Its persistence is a sign of global inequality and an indication that health systems are failing to protect the health and human rights of the poorest and most vulnerable women and girls. the practice is an extreme violation of women's basic human rights.

Female genital mutilation takes place during childhood, at the time of marriage, during a woman's first pregnancy or after the birth of her first child. Recent reports suggest that the age has been dropping in some areas, with most FGM carried out on girls between the ages of 0 and 15 years.

FGM is carried out as a way to control women’s sexuality, which is sometimes said to be insatiable if parts of the genitalia, especially the clitoris, are not removed. It is thought to ensure virginity before marriage and fidelity afterward, and to increase male sexual pleasure. It is also seen as part of a girl’s initiation into womanhood and as an intrinsic part of a community’s cultural heritage. Sometimes myths about female genitalia (e.g., that an uncut clitoris will grow to the size of a penis, or that female genital mutilation will enhance fertility or promote child survival) perpetuate the practice.

Girls and women who have undergone FGM live predominately in sub-Saharan Africa and the Arab States, but FGM is also practiced in select countries in Asia, Eastern Europe and Latin America.

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  • Deflowered

  • EXCISION
    Partial or total removal of the clitoris and the labia minora, with or without excision of the labia majora. The amount of tissue that is removed varies widely from community to community.

  • INFIBULATION
    Narrowing of the vaginal orifice with a covering seal. The seal is formed by cutting and re-positioning the labia minora and/or the labia majora. This can take place with or without removal of the clitoris.

  • VIRGINITY
    Female genital mutilation is carried out as a way to control women’s sexuality, ensure virginity before marriage and fidelity afterward, and to increase male sexual pleasure. It is also seen as part of a girl’s initiation into womanhood and as an intrinsic part of a community’s cultural heritage.

  • CLITORIDECTOMY
    Partial or total removal of the clitoris and/or the prepuce.

    As recent as the 1950s, clitoridectomy was practiced in Western Europe and the United States to treat perceived ailments including hysteria, epilepsy, mental disorders, masturbation, nymphomania and melancholia.

  • INFIBULATION
    INFIBULATION
    Female genital mutilation takes place during childhood, at the time of marriage, during a woman's first pregnancy or after the birth of her first child. Recent reports suggest that the age has been dropping in some areas, with most FGM carried out on girls between the ages of 0 and 15 years.

  • COMPLICATION I
    COMPLICATION I
    Immediate complications include severe pain, shock, haemorrhage, tetanus or infection, urine retention, ulceration of the genital region and injury to adjacent tissue, wound infection, urinary infection, fever, and septicemia. Haemorrhage and infection can be severe enough to cause death.

  • COMPLICATION II
    Long-term consequences include complications during childbirth, anaemia, the formation of cysts and abscesses, keloid scar formation, damage to the urethra resulting in urinary incontinence, dyspareunia (painful sexual intercourse), sexual dysfunction, hypersensitivity of the genital area and increased risk of HIV transmission, as well as psychological effects.

  • COMPLICATION III
    Infibulation may cause complete vaginal obstruction resulting in the accumulation of menstrual flow in the vagina and uterus. An infibulated woman has to undergo gradual dilation of the vaginal opening before sexual intercourse can take place. Often, infibulated women are cut open on the first night of marriage (by the husband or a circumciser) to enable the husband to be intimate with his wife. At childbirth, many women also have to be cut again because the vaginal opening is too small to allow for the passage of a baby.

  • IMMOBILISATION
    Infibulation may cause complete vaginal obstruction resulting in the accumulation of menstrual flow in the vagina and uterus. An infibulated woman has to undergo gradual dilation of the vaginal opening before sexual intercourse can take place. Often, infibulated women are cut open on the first night of marriage (by the husband or a circumciser) to enable the husband to be intimate with his wife. At childbirth, many women also have to be cut again because the vaginal opening is too small to allow for the passage of a baby.

  • OBSTRETIC FISTULAE
    Women who have undergone infibulation are more likely to suffer from prolonged and obstructed labour, sometimes resulting in foetal death and obstetric fistula. Obstetric fistula is a hole between the birth canal and bladder or rectum caused by prolonged, obstructed labour. It leaves women leaking urine, faeces or both, and often leads to chronic medical problems, depression, social isolation and deepening poverty.

  • The actual number of girls who die as a result of female genital mutilation is not known. However, in some areas where antibiotics are not available, it is estimated that one-third of the girls undergoing FGM will die.


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