"Threads of time" The Hmong of Ha Giang.

  • Dates
    2022 - Ongoing
  • Author
  • Topics Contemporary Issues, Daily Life, Documentary, Portrait, Social Issues, Travel
  • Locations Vietnam, Ha Giang

With roots in China, the Hmong migrated to Vietnam in the 18th century, settling in the mountainous landscape of Ha Giang, Northern Vietnam. The delicate balance between tradition and progress defines their journey in the ever evolving world.

In 2022 I visited a small mountain village in Ha Giang, Northern Vietnam. I was accompanied by my Vietnamese friend and personal guide of the area. We arrived on a rented semi-automatic Honda motorbike, around midday on a sweltering Friday. After a little rest we set off to the mountain area where a community of Hmong people reside. Here, I met for the first time the Hmong (a special group also known as the Miao) dressed in their uniquely colorful traditional clothing.

The Hmong people in Ha Giang, North Vietnam, boast a rich and intricate history deeply intertwined with the mountains and valleys of the region. Believed to have originated in South-Western China, the Hmong migrated to Vietnam, Laos, Thailand and other neighboring countries centuries ago when their freedom became limited, carrying with them a distinct culture, language, and vibrant traditions.

Over time, they have maintained a strong connection with their Chinese roots, evident in their customs and attire. The advantageous aspect of their traditional lifestyle lies in their strong sense of community and cultural identity, fostering resilience and unity. However, as modern development encroaches upon their ancestral lands, the Hmong face challenges in preserving their traditional way of life.

Signs of development can be seen in the mountains as road constructions are under way. During our road trip in the mountains of Ha Giang, we had to wait a number of times at road constructions, to be let through. Once, on a high pass near the Chinese border, we waited for several hours until we realized we needed to turn back to reach a safe overnight haven before darkness.

Hmong traditions:

One of the most visually striking aspects of the Hmong culture is their traditional attire. Each sub-group within the Hmong community showcases distinct garments, adorned with intricate embroidery and colorful patterns, reflecting their individual identity and ancestral roots.

Women’s clothing typically features a vibrant mix of red, green, and blue hues, meticulously embroidered with floral motifs and geometric patterns. Silver accessories, such as necklaces, bracelets, and earrings, hold great cultural significance and are often passed down through generations.

  • The ‘Cho Lui’ Market in Duc Gia, Yen Minh:

Among the many vibrant markets in Ha Giang, the ‘cho lui‘ is a weekly gathering that holds immense cultural significance for the Hmong people, especially in Du Gia, Yên Minh. Every Saturday morning, the market comes alive with a kaleidoscope of colors, flavors, and traditions.

The ‘cho lui’ is not merely a place for bartering goods and produce; it serves as a social and cultural hub where Hmong families come together to celebrate, exchange news, and showcase their unique fashion styles.

  • The traditional woven baskets

crafted by the Hmong people in the mountains of Ha Giang, Vietnam, have a long and storied history deeply intertwined with their way of life. For centuries, these skilled artisans have been honing their craft, passing down techniques from one generation to the next. Woven with great care and precision, these baskets serve multifunctional purposes within the Hmong community.

In their agricultural lifestyle, the baskets are used for gathering and transporting crops, while in daily household chores, they prove essential for storage and carrying various items

  • The process of making rice wine

is a time-honored tradition passed down from elders to the younger generation, fostering a sense of community and continuity. From planting and harvesting rice to the meticulous fermentation process, the Hmong people infuse their rice wine with deep-rooted symbolism and blessings.

During festivals, weddings, and other significant occasions, the sharing of homemade rice wine becomes a sacred ritual, strengthening bonds and fostering a spirit of togetherness. The warmth and joy of sipping this cherished beverage embody the essence of the Hmong people’s heritage, creating an unforgettable experience for visitors fortunate enough to partake in their rich cultural traditions.


The advent of technology and infrastructure can offer benefits like improved access to education and healthcare, but it also poses the risk of cultural erosion and displacement. Balancing the advantages of progress with the preservation of their unique heritage becomes a delicate challenge for the Hmong people in Ha Giang, as they navigate the complexities of a changing world while striving to uphold their centuries-old traditions.

Personally, I deeply cherish the significance of acknowledging and safeguarding this ancient and distinctive culture, which has triumphed over numerous challenges throughout the ages. It's truly remarkable to witness their existence alongside the highly developed modern world, yet they persist in upholding their timeless traditions with exceptional strength and resilience.

All photographs copyrighted ©LavonneBosman

© Lavonne Bosman - At the end of a long day.

At the end of a long day.

© Lavonne Bosman - Mountain family

Mountain family

© Lavonne Bosman - Portrait of a young Hmong girl in the mountain

Portrait of a young Hmong girl in the mountain

© Lavonne Bosman - Early Saturday morning gathering of Hmong people en route to the market.

Early Saturday morning gathering of Hmong people en route to the market.

© Lavonne Bosman - Portrait of a young boy in the mountain area.

Portrait of a young boy in the mountain area.

© Lavonne Bosman - Early morning rice-fields visit.

Early morning rice-fields visit.

© Lavonne Bosman - On the way to the market.

On the way to the market.

© Lavonne Bosman - Tasting home-made rice wine.

Tasting home-made rice wine.

© Lavonne Bosman - Rice wine at the market.

Rice wine at the market.

© Lavonne Bosman - Chinese doll.

Chinese doll.

© Lavonne Bosman - Carry baskets handmade by the Hmong women.

Carry baskets handmade by the Hmong women.

© Lavonne Bosman - Street portrait of a Hmong woman.

Street portrait of a Hmong woman.

© Lavonne Bosman - Street Portrait of a Hmong man.

Street Portrait of a Hmong man.

© Lavonne Bosman - Man's business.

Man's business.

© Lavonne Bosman - Hmong Agriculture.

Hmong Agriculture.

© Lavonne Bosman - At work in the fields.

At work in the fields.

© Lavonne Bosman - Hmong women style.

Hmong women style.

© Lavonne Bosman - Waiting in queue at a road construction block.

Waiting in queue at a road construction block.

© Lavonne Bosman - Lucky money.

Lucky money.

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